It was also an important city that China, the Soviet Union, and other countries supported. Japan's involvement in the Vietnam War included the use of bases in Okinawa to use as launching points for the U.S. army. The CIA-sponsored "Secret Army" of Major Gen. Vang Pao at Long Cheng, where the U. S. and Laotian governments permitted newsmen a rare glimpse of the base in 1972. List of wars involving Vietnam. The United States got involved to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands. Jennifer Manzo Both Moscow and Beijing hoped to expand communism into Asia. Things changed when Khrushchev was out of power and replaced by Leonid Brezhnev who favored more direct involvement to aid North Vietnam. In the aftermath of the World War II, the Soviet Union paid little attention to the communist movement (Viet Minh) in Vietnam who was largely outside Moscow’s sphere of influence. Nov. 5, 1968: Nixon is elected president, promising to end the war in Vietnam. After World War II, France reoccupied Vietnam as part of its attempt to reclaim its prewar empire. Japan mostly served as the repair facilities for U.S. tanks and ships China's interest in Vietnam began in the 1940's when communism began to take control. Despite speculation that the victorious North Vietnamese would, in President Nixon's words, "massacre the civilians there [South Vietnam] by the millions," there is a widespread consensus that no mass executions took place. Since then, China played a decreasing and more passive role in helping their former close allies. At first, the U.S. operated behind the scenes, but after 1964, sent combat troops and became more deeply mired in the war. Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam that is located in the north of the country. The United States and many other countries intervened, propping up both sides—but especially South Vietnam—with troops, weapons and supplies and turning what started as a small guerrilla uprising into a major Cold War-era conflict. They were seeking to strengthen their ties with France and help stop the spread of communism. July 1954: At a conference in Geneva, world … The French and American experiences in Vietnam differed in many respects. People’s Republic of China (PRC) was the first country that recognized the Democratic republic of vietnam (DRV) led by Ho Chi Minh back in January 1950. Automatically reference everything correctly with CiteThisForMe. Vietnam War (1954–75), conflict that pitted the communist government of North Vietnam and its allies in South Vietnam, the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. Countries Involved in the Vietnam War: The Vietnam War was an undeclared war fought between North and South Vietnam. In 1954, Ho’s forces won a decisive victory at Dien Bien Phu and succeeded in evicting the French once and for all. READ MORE: Why Were Vietnam War Vets Treated Poorly When They Returned? Unlike during the Korean War, the United States yielded to this threat. Following the victory over the south in 1975, the unified Vietnam waged a four year war against Cambodia. However, in the years following the war, a vast number of South Vietnamese were sent to re-education campswhere many endured torture, starvation, and disease while being forced to p… The other four were the French, the Japanese, the Chinese and, of course, the Vietnamese themselves. Prior to the recognition and support, the Chinese communists and Viet Minh had been co-operating in their respective struggles during 1946-49, up until the Chinese communists won the civil war in 1949. Nonetheless, during 1972 – 1975, China continued to provide the sinews of modern war that would enable NVA to launch two modern and large-scale offensives against South Vietnam in both 1972 and 1975 which eventually ended the Vietnam War. South Vietnam is supported by what country. Bombs ready to be loaded onto a French aircraft for the long drawn out Dien Bien Phu Battle of the Indochina War on April 10, 1954. The significant impact of the war was that it resulted in the death of a large number of people. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! The Vietnam War is still going on in Vietnam. A Cold War-era billboard in Moscow showing bombs raining down on Uncle Sam reading, 'Aggressors out of Vietnam!' Vietnam Travel. “The Koreans sent more troops and much more aggressive troops [than other U.S. allies],” Moise says. Vietnam eventually fell completely to communism. The Soviets wanted to “make life difficult for the United States,” McAllister says, “but they didn’t want to do it in a way that got them in a conflict with the United States.”, Soviet involvement in the war increased in the late 1960s, just as China’s influence was lessening. How eight countries got bogged down in the Vietnam War's Cold War proxy battle. The countries involved in Vietnam were Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, Australia, Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic, and Kingdom of Laos. Here, retired Colonel William C Haponski, co-author of ‘Autopsy of an Unwinnable War: Vietnam’, explains that the British were in fact one of five main players in early post-World War 2 Vietnam. Poster entitled "Support Vietnam People," circa 1969, showing China's support of the Communist cause in Vietnam. South Vietnam was backed by anti-communist countries and members of the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which included the United States, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic (later overthrown by Khmer Rouge), Kingdom of Laos and Republic of China (Taiwan). Instead, a communist insurgency broke out, pitting the so-called Viet Cong, who were sponsored by North Vietnam, against Diem’s forces. Despite the tensions, both Beijing and Moscow shared the same view on the conflict in Vietnam. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. The student movement and the antiwar movement. Impact of the Gulf War. May 7, 1954: Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces defeat the French at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, effectively ending the 7 ½-year Indochina War. The main countries involved in the Vietnam War were North and South Vietnam. Brutal tactics were the norm during the Vietnam War, and no one suffered more than the Vietnamese themselves, both in the North and the South. The Chinese interpreted American “aggression” against North Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident as their own and threatened to militarily intervene in North Vietnam if American forces crossed the DMZ. Although Moscow belatedly recognized Ho’s government in January 1950, they rejected his request to back North Vietnamese movement for independence against the French. At the same time, advances in video and audio recording enabled both easier… While the U.S.S.R. supplied some troops, their biggest contribution was in weaponry. Among other weapons, the USSR provided surface-to-air missiles that the Chinese weren’t yet technologically capable of producing. “They were determined to go on holding it, both as a matter of national pride and because if they let one colony go loose, then the others might get ideas.”. People from other countries also went to fight but not in their own national army. In fact, French President Charles de Gaulle warned his U.S. counterpart, John F. Kennedy Jr., that Vietnam would be a “bottomless military and political swamp.” Though prescient, the advice ultimately went unheeded. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. As a result, President Nixon ended all U.S. interventions in Vietnam and the rest of Southeast Asia in 1973. The Vietnam War (also known as Second Indochina War or American War in Vietnam) lasted from 1 November 1955–30 April 1975, (19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day).It was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam.North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China and North Korea, while South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, Thailand, Australia, New … The 1988 book won the Pulitzer Prize for non-fiction. THE WAR IN VIETNAM was one of the 20 th Century’s most intractable conflicts. Below is a list of nations that played a role in the Vietnam War, and details on what motivated them to get involved. The United States lost the Vietnam War. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. The North Vietnamese also came to dominate a communist insurgency against the royalist government of Prince Souvanna Phouma, relegating the local Laotian Communists to what Moise describes as “junior partners.”. The main countries involved in Vietnam included North Vietnam, South Vietnam, United States of America, Peoples Republic of China, South Korea and USSR. Determined to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands, the United States propped up Diem with billions of dollars in aid, as well as increasing numbers of military advisers. The Vietnam War. The American people did not feel like their government was being held accountable. Moscow now became North Vietnam’s main benefactor, increasing its aid to Hanoi in response to the US military escalation of 1965. The Domino Theory. Elections were planned to reunite the country within two years, but Diem, with U.S. approval, never submitted to a vote that he feared losing. Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. In 1971, the Pentagon Papers were leaked, revealing confidential information about the war. Dwight Eisenhower JFK Lyndon Johnson Richard Nixon. ... Up Next. While nearly 60,000 Americans lost their lives in the … All told, the Chinese claimed to have spent over $20 billion in support of North Vietnam and deployed 320,000 military personnel, more than 4,000 of whom died. However, they were also being paid off by the United States in the form of economic and military assistance. USA. In 1966, the reclusive regime dispatched two squadrons of MiG-17s and a squadron of MiG-21s — 30 planes in all. The North was supported by communist countries such as the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union. What countries involved in the Vietnam War? The Vietnam war was a civil war involving what two Vietnamese. Mostly in this world people think that the war is not the batter solution for any kind of dispute, violence and misunderstanding. Winston Churchill, and later Harold Wilson, may be thought of as having kept Britain out of Vietnam, but in actual fact, that was only once it had begun to escalate.. North Vietnam was backed by the communist allies which included People’s Republic of China, Soviet Union, Pathet Lao (Laotian Communist insurgents), Khmer Rouge  (Cambodian Communist insurgents) and North Korea. The War was mainly fought in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. The Philippines, Taiwan and Spain likewise aided the U.S. war effort, whereas on the communist side North Korea and Cuba purportedly sent token support. China and the Soviet Union didn’t have to do as much as the Americans, Moise explains, because they were buttressing the stronger side. Unsurprisingly, the North Vietnamese likewise moved troops and supplies through neighboring Cambodia, which, though officially neutral, tolerated the communist intrusions. China invaded Vietnam in 1979 by way of retaliation. It was France's attempt to reestablish its rule in Vietnam after WWII. This was the belief that if one country fell to communism, it was likely that the … South Vietnam was backed by anti-communist countries and members of the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which included the United States, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic (later overthrown by Khmer Rouge), Kingdom of Laos and Republic of China (Taiwan). Most Vietnamese, however, opposed colonial rule, and a rebellion broke out led by communist and pro-independence leader Ho Chi Minh. The death of Stalin in March 1953 and the stabilization of events in Europe drew Moscow’s attention back to Southeast Asia. Republic of Vietnam (1950 "State of Vietnam, AKA South Vietnam) Also known as the Second Indochina War or simply the American War to the Vietnamese, the epic struggle claimed the lives of more than 2 million people, including some 60,000 U.S. personnel and more than a million civilians. The American people did not feel like their government was being held accountable. Vietnam War. All Rights Reserved. North Vietnam is supported by what two countries. i dont want explinations about federal nations and immigration and stuff, just give me a simple list of the countries invlved, and if you can, please tell me who were allies and … As a result, the Vietnamese suffered the highest casualties in the conflict. Nixon then sent troops across the border in 1970, taking advantage of a coup that ousted Sihanouk in favor of a pro-American general. China only came in 1979 after the war was over when China invaded north Vietnam. The DMZ was later established and then followed by invasions, skirmishes terrorist acts and so forth until Australia and US got involved in the 1950's and then all out war followed with the other countries joining in. © 2012-2021 The Vietnam War. Though Vietnamese communists allied with the Khmer Rouge during the Vietnam War, they eventually deposed the regime in 1979. In 1971, the Pentagon Papers were leaked, revealing confidential information about the war. He explains that they were partially motivated by a sense of obligation and ideological sympathy: After all, they could not help but notice the historical parallels between themselves and South Vietnam. South Korea was the main U.S. and South Vietnamese partner, providing over 300,000 troops and suffering some 5,000 deaths. In total, there were at least 21 countries* reported to get involved in the entire wars in Vietnam – from the First Indochina war (December 19, 1946 – August 1, 1954) to the Vietnam war (the Second Indochina war) (November 1, 1955 to April 30, 1975): * Most of the communist allies hardly disclose any details of their activities during the conflict although their involvement in Vietnam was apparent. In response to these North Vietnamese transgressions, the Americans covertly rained down billions of pounds of bombs on Laos. Since the 19 th century, Vietnam had been under colonial rule. As the Pentagon Papers later revealed, “the Diem regime certainly, and an independent South Vietnam almost as certainly, could not have survived” without U.S. help. The Saudi Arabian forces involved in the war were estimated to be close to 100,000. The Soviet Union remained indifferent with the conflict in Vietnam in early 1960s under Nikita Khrushchev even after the Gulf of Tonkin incident. How the Vietnam War Ratcheted Up Under 5 US Presidents. In the 1954 Geneva Accords, following the Soviet Union, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai urged the Viet Minh to accept a temporary partition of Vietnam at the 17th parallel. A converted T-28 trainer aircraft is seen near 250-pound bombs used by Meo pilots of Vang Pao's "mini-Air Force" against North Vietnamese in northern Laos. (The two countries were undergoing a bitter split at the time.). Sino-Soviet relations went from bad to worse after the Soviets invaded Czechoslovakia in August 1968 and reached its nadir with an armed conflict at Sino-Soviet border in March 1969. An approximately 1,000 Chinese were killed in North Vietnam in the late 1960s. The nine-year campaign was so intense that, on average, a planeload of explosives fell every eight minutes, making Laos, per capita, the most heavily bombed nation on earth. You can see Cambodia here, Vietnam along the coast, and then, Laos, right over here. Though it originally took little interest in the Vietnam War, the Soviet Union secretly ramped up its aid to North Vietnam following Nikita Khrushchev’s fall from power. Prior to that time, the number of American newsmen in Indochina had been small—fewer than two dozen even as late as 1964. Ho led the North, whereas the U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem took charge of the South. However, the US started direct military action in Vietnam in 1964 until 1973. This is the currently selected item. Unexploded munitions from the Vietnam War-era continue to kill Laotians (and Vietnamese and Cambodians) to this day. In the end, almost 60,000 Australians served (521 of whom died), about 40,000 Thais served (321 of whom died), and over 3,000 New Zealanders served (37 of whom died). However, they did not actively involved in the conflict until early 1967 after their ruling Workers Party approved the decision in October 1966. And so you can imagine, during World War II, France was quickly overrun by the Germans. Overall, though, they pumped only about 3,000 troops into the conflict, far fewer than the Chinese. The War was mainly fought in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. Last Updated on And France stayed the colonizing power-- I have a little gap in my timeline here-- and they stayed a colonizing power all the way through World War II. In 1964, however, the so-called Gulf of Tonkin incident prompted President Lyndon B. Johnson to commit combat troops and launch a massive bombing campaign, and U.S. involvement only deepened from there. America and South Korea were the biggest supporters of Saigon. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China and North Korea, while South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. The United States involvement in Vietnam began in 1950, during the French Indochina War. His account of the Vietnam War, A Bright Shining Lie: John Paul Vann And America In Vietnam, took him 15 years to write. So, too, did a legitimate fear of Communism, Moise says. North Vietnam immediately broke the accord, however, moving troops and supplies through Laos rather than traversing the heavily guarded demilitarized zone that separated it from South Vietnam. However, it’s worth noticing that after China’s ally Khmer Rouge conducted some savage raids along the border between Vietnam and Cambodia during 1975–1978 and Vietnam responded with an invasion that overthrew them, China decided to launch a brief, punitive border invasion of Vietnam in 1979 sometimes known as the Third Indochina War to “teach them a lesson”. Cold War tensions ran high as the country relentlessly fought against the alleged evils of communism. Cambodia, while officially neutral, tolerated communist intrusions—and was bombed by the United States for those intrusions. The United States got involved to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands. During the Second World War, Japan invaded the country. Meanwhile, President Richard Nixon authorized a cross-border invasion of Laos in 1971. Some countries such as Cuba and Taiwan provided secret supports to their respective allies while others such as Czechoslovakia, East and West Germany although did not officially participate offered military advisors, engineers and doctors in their allies’ forces. What Countries Involved in the Vietnam War? The US first used napalm during World War II in both the European and Pacific theaters, and also deployed it during the Korean War.However, those instances are dwarfed by American use of napalm in the Vietnam War, where the US dropped almost 400,000 tons of napalm bombs in the decade between 1963 and 1973. For the most part, the Chinese stayed in the background, rebuilding areas destroyed by U.S. bombs and manning anti-aircraft batteries. 1 Hồng Bàng Dynasty (2879 BC – 257 BC) 2 … ... What four presidents were involved in the war. Germany subsequently declared war following Russian cooperation with Serbia. At first, the United States largely operated behind the scenes. Yet, as Moise points out, they both learned one important lesson: “It’s dangerous to get in a fight when the other side cares about winning more than you do.”. “Their function is as a tripwire,” Moise says, “a warning to the Americans: ‘Don’t go too far… or you’ll be fighting us.’”. During the war with the United States, Giáp would retain his position as one of the chief military commanders in North Vietnam, overseeing the communist insurgency in the South and the activities of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) forces of the North, though these two were admittedly intertwined. The United States responded with a secret bombing campaign that Nixon drastically ramped up in 1969. The student movement and the antiwar movement. All rights reserved. The Vietnam War was ostensibly a civil war between the communist North and pro-Western South. Following France’s defeat in the First Indochina War, an international agreement divided Vietnam in two. The Vietnam War was fought between communist North Vietnam and the government of Southern Vietnam. Vietnam War Countries Involved View: More Articles from . 320,000 military personnel, more than 4,000. While South Korea sent a total of 313,000 soldiers between 1965 and 1973 to South Vietnam, North Korea only sent in a fighter squadron to North Vietnam in early 1967 to back up their air defenses in the city of Hanoi. In the same year, they also sent weapons and military advisors to assist the viet Minh in their war against the French. The South was supported by anti-communist countries, primarily the United States. Yet their support for South Vietnam never wavered, no matter who occupied the White House. There were also members of the International Control Commission (ICC) and International Commission of Control and Supervision (ICCS) who albeit supposedly neutral took sides and even offered aid to them such as Poland and Canada. Vietnam - Vietnam - The two Vietnams (1954–65): The agreements concluded in Geneva between April and July 1954 (collectively called the Geneva Accords) were signed by French and Viet Minh representatives and provided for a cease-fire and temporary division of the country into two military zones at latitude 17 °N (popularly called the 17th parallel). North Vietnam was backed by communist forces … Ho led the North, whereas the U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem took charge of the South. Contents. Soviet Union and china. Vietnam eventually fell completely to communism. The situation changed dramatically when the Chinese communist won the civil in mainland china in October 1949 and fostered the communist movement further to Asia. U.S. bombs killed tens of thousands of Cambodians, which, some historians contend, may have increased popular support for the Khmer Rouge, a communist insurgency group that initiated a brutal genocide upon taking power in 1975. It was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. If we take a look on the history of this word when the war is being started, there were number of causes from which the brutality and the economic disasters were major causes that were going through the countries to countries. Saigon is the city located in South Vietnam that resides next to Ho Chi Ming City. North Korea had provided North Vietnam both political and military support including sending military advisers in the early stage of the Vietnam War due to the close Ideology between Hanoi and Pyongyang. Financial aid, along with a desire to curry favor with the United States, drew in additional countries as well. Newly communist China had supported Ho Chi Minh during the war with the French, and continued to do so during the war with the U.S. by providing weapons, expertise and manpower. Sovfoto/Universal Images Group/Getty Images. Similar to Beijing, Moscow who feared U.S. direct intervention in Vietnam urged Ho Chi Minh to accept the temporary division of Vietnam of the 1954 Geneva Accords and focus on building the country’s military and economy instead. That insurgency drew heavy U.S. bombing. All of these countries were on the anti-communist force. The Chinese allowed Soviet materiel across China for the North to prosecute wage the war. Donate or volunteer today! Eventually, the conflict would grow to a global scale, and the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire would fight against Great Britain, the United States, France, Russia, Italy, Japan and Romania (the Allied Powers). France had been a long-time occupier of Vietnam before 1954. What could have been the solutions for both North and South Vietnam? South Korea  was the main U.S. and South Vietnamese partner, contributing more than 300,000 troops to the war. Yet, no matter what they tried, the Americans never succeeded in seriously disrupting North Vietnamese supply lines, nor did they prevent the fall of Laos to the communists in 1975. Causes of the Vietnam war. By the time American forces finally withdrew in 1973, about 2.7 million U.S. soldiers had served in Vietnam, more than 58,000 had died, and the nation had racked up a staggering bill of at least $111 billion (plus billions more in non-military costs). Here, retired Colonel William C Haponski, co-author of ‘Autopsy of an Unwinnable War: Vietnam’, explains that the British were in fact one of five main players in early post-World War 2 Vietnam. “The French had controlled Vietnam for a couple of generations,” explains Ed Moise, a professor of history at Clemson University and author of Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War. Despite being in bad economic shape at the time, newly Communist China aided Ho during the war with the French, and did so again during the war with the Americans, providing weapons, expertise, and manpower. As a result, President Nixon ended all U.S. interventions in Vietnam and the rest of Southeast Asia in 1973. The countries involved in Vietnam were Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, Australia, Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic, and Kingdom of Laos. Prince Norodom Sihanouk “basically felt that he was surrounded by dangerous enemies, and he had to make nice with some of them,” Moise says, adding that “he could not afford to offend” the North Vietnamese despite being “anti-communist in Cambodian politics.”. Chinese troops in North Vietnam would eventually withdraw, for the most part, by 1970. As the original communist state, the Soviet Union aided North Vietnam, with increasing support in the late 1960s. Yet the Vietnamese didn’t do all the fighting. The Soviets even allegedly shot down some U.S. planes. But perhaps their biggest role was preemptive: They made it clear that if U.S. ground troops invaded North Vietnam, then they would respond in kind. When the Second Indochina War, or Vietnam War, as it’s known in the United States, began soon after, France stayed well away. 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